The results show that for the overall GIHI2021 ranking, the top 10 cities/metropolitan areas are San Francisco-San Jose, New York MA, London MA, Beijing, Boston MA, Tokyo MA, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Paris MA, Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, Baltimore-Washington.
The GIHI measures research innovation via 4 level-two indicators — science and technology human resources, research institutions, scientific infrastructure, and knowledge creation — and 9 level-three indicators.
Scientific institutes and infrastructure help cities/metropolitan areas in China, such as Beijing and the Greater Bay Area, stand out in research innovation. In particular, Beijing, as the highest-ranked GIH in China, has moved up the list due to its edge in the number of large scientific facilities and supercomputers, as well as many globally influential universities such as Tsinghua University, Peking University, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Research innovation in the Greater Bay Area is accelerated by the advancement of the Greater Bay Area development strategy and the completion of multiple research institutes and facilities. Nevertheless, cities/metropolitan areas in China still have a lot to catch up to in terms of science and technology human resources and knowledge creation.
The GIHI examines the innovation economy using 4 level-two indicators — technological innovation capacity, innovative enterprises, emerging industries, and economic growth — along with 8 level-three indicators.
The top five are San Francisco-San Jose, Tokyo MA, Beijing, the Greater Bay Area, and New York MA.
The top 20 cities/metropolitan areas tend to score highly on technological innovation capacity, innovation enterprises, and emerging industries, but their scores in economic growth demonstrates the highest dispersion among these 4 level-two indicators.
The GIHI examines innovation ecosystems using 4 level-two indicators — openness and collaboration, support for start-ups, public services, and innovation culture — and 15 level-three indicators.
In general, the top 20 cities/metropolitan areas all score highly with small variations, suggesting that top-ranked GIHs generally attach great importance to the innovation ecosystem.